Salatman information

Dear manager of Zanjan Cultural Heritage
Saltman No: 4

Plain radiography , two dimensional CT , three dimensional CT of bone and skin ” bone and surface rendering ” secondary reconstruction , CD , and preparations for making mullage from skull ” polymer with UV radiation ”

A : Introduction
Saltman No : 4 in special situation was carried  to Tehran on Friday 2005/16/12 , and was searched in jam e jam imaging Center : No. 130, corner of martyr Naseri St, Valiasre Ave.
(upper than Zafar St.). The equipments which were used are as below:

1 – Hospital portable x – ray system 100 miliamper

2 – CT SCAN Shimadzu model 6800 with 70 cm gentry that because body posture of the mummy , it wasn’t possible in Zanjan to have it ” 3D option and wide gantry opening was necessary roles for imaging ” .

3 – Facilities of Di – COM for preparing CD to reserve information for future modeling. By CAD – CAM “SLE Machine”
Stuff and colleagues were as fallowing:
Dr. Jalal Jalal Shokouhi M.D. radiologist of this center , and Honory consultant in cultural and archeological affairs of Iran Bastan museum ” National Iranian museum ”
Mr. Ali Saeidi B.S in radiology and manager of this center .
Mr. Mir Mahmood Farjad B.S in CT SCAN operatory.
Mr. Reza Sayadinejad “Engineer”
Mr. Esmail Haghsheno B.S. in Radiology
Mr. Tatari B.S. in radiology and MR. Massood Shojaei BS
in Radiology
First CT SCAN images and then radiography were taken.
The first findings were multiple fractures in skull, chest, and long bones.
In long bones fractures were in cress sectional direction which informed of heavy pressure falling on the body suddenly “large stone”.
It is normally rare in a healthy human being to see cross section or transverse future in long bones except in rapid and Direct trauma.

B – Radiographs from head to toe
AP and lateral radiographs were not possible because of harms for mammy position, therefore we took some possible plans “views”
1 – in skull radiographys “2 pieces”: two obligues of upper part were taken which accidentally showed optic nerve foramen.
Orbit bones were normal, but there were multiple fractures in skull.
Metal earring on right ear observed which the metal was something except gold (it seemed to be silver with a defect in its ring) .
There were fractures in the mid-line of mandible (mentom), and probably some fractures in temporo – mandibular joints.

An interesting finding was an the end of long bones and iliac crest, epiphyseal lines which were still not closed so the mummy was young under 22).
Patency of proximal epiphysis of first metacarp base and to be open of epiphys of first phalang of thumb and presence of sesamoid of tumt showed the mummy to the between 15 and 16 years old .
The proper age for the mummy is 15.5 as hand radiographs showed in comparison with pyle and grolich bone age from wrist and hand translated by shirin birang M.D , introduction by j – jalal shokouhi M.D.
The mummy had no beard , it means he was very young .
With attention to lower pubis angle that is between pubis arcs we can confirm that the mummy is a salt man and there is no doubt for being a women. ( sobtta anatomy , page 248 ).
There were soil on the skin of mummy.
There were bilateral clavicules factures.
His chin deviated forward on the upper part of anterior chest, and head leaned completely.
Some part of his cloth is seen between skull and right hand “sheep skin”.
Basically we recognize the age of a person form Lt. wrist and hand but in this case the right hand was more available.
There was a fracture at the distal part of right radial bone


2 – hands radiographs ( 4 pieces ) :
In right hand there are fractures in the middle of humerus condylus of the distal humerus near elbow , proximal and distal part of  radial bone and distal end of ulna.
Fractures of distal end of radius were completely cross sectional or transverse. We can not study the end of finger because of crumpling.
We took multiple density radiographs of Lt. palm and forearm for seeing cloth, skin and bone separately.
There was fracture in the proximal part of Lt. humerus.

3- Lung Radiography “1 piece”

Lt. knee leaned or bended on the abdomen, and lower part
of the chest, but we can recognize fractures of both clavicles, and ribes from first to nine ribs in a row and at the Lt. part of body.
Seventh rib was broken at lateral part.


4- Abdomen and pelvic radiography “2 pieces”

Lt. knee covered abdomen on the Lt. side, and there was jar “pot” in the right pocket of mummy.
Another jar or pot has been separated from mummy, and has been scanned separately.
Iliac Crest showed that the mummy is a person under 22, and with considering of wrist was 15 – 16 years old.

Right leg was located normally, and Lt. leg was leaned on the abdomen.
There was a fracture on the proximal end of Lt. leg, and there were multiple fractures on acetabulom.

There were fractures on the Crest of Iliac and sacrum.
The most interesting finding in pelvic radiography was narrow angle between pubis arcs which inform of being a man.

This angle is 60° that is according to the anatomy book. This angle is 110° in women.

The jar was on upper the Rt. edge, and the metal knife was on the upper lateral edge.


5- Lower part “limb” “3 pieces”


Lt. lower limb was leaned on the abdomen, and consisted of a knife (the metal was without any holes, or oldness so Zanjan Knifes were excellent since the past).

Fracture of the proximal end of femur was transverse.

Right knee had 90°angle, and there were fractures on both bones of right leg.

There was a half boot on the right foot, and the right sole looked normal.

The right foot’s fingers became crumpled because of narrowing of leather of the boot.






  1. C.T. SCAN of skull and teeth “10 pieces”

Skull had a lot of fractures because of trauma to occipital, and being stocked between two hard material, so that anterio- posterior diameter was reduced, and the face was depressed.
On the Lt. side of skull a piece of bone was separated with the shape of a little shallow bowl.

 Pieces of brain were located on anterior frontal part of skull that indicated the mummy was laid on abdomen.

All the face skin was full of wrinkles that was because of bone fractures of the face.

Both ear bones were fractured, but the internal auditory canals were normal.
Both ear labyrinths were normal.
Orbits muscles became dried, and globs were shrank.
Ethmoid cells, and nose cavities were normal, but, peak of nasal bone was broken.

A metal earring was seen on the right ear.
Zygomatic arches in both side were normal.

There were foreign bodies, sands, and soil on the skin of mummy which interfere with reconstruction of three – dimensional images.

– Lower jaw was leaned on the anterior part of chest. Apposite of simple radiographs which were suspected of being some fractures, with C.T. SCAN, there was no fracture in temporo- mandibular joint, both side of lower jaw, and the angles , but there is a fracture on the mid – line with little bit to the right on the chin. Mandibular nerve canals were seen properly. Maxillary sinuses were full of air , and looked normal.

There is air inside the total skull. Upper jaw was seen properly and consisted of all teeth except the 3rd molar teeth on both side, and on up and down.

The nose was deviated to the right, and the tear canals from eye to nose were determined clearly.
Spinal cord was seen like a dried narrow layer.

– Panoramic reconstruction “OPG of PANOREX” from the teeth was taken which was interesting image.

There were 28 teeth all together “primary no molar teeth or extracted teeth ?!”.

2- Three dimensional C.T. SCAN from skull and face “9 pieces”

These series consisted of skin, bones of right hand, shoulder, neck, apart of LT. humerus, face and skull.

Because of dried skin, and presence of foreign bodies, images are mixed with overlapped objects images.

Only on right hand images looked like normal situation and very nice.

Midface was depressed, and looked like extra folded loose skin. The pelissse »sheep skin« was seen between head, and right hand.

The most normal places of mummy were his forehead, right hand palm, and wrist.

Three dimensional surface images of skin “S.S.D or surface shaded display” were clearer than the bone. 

And three – dimensional images “6 pieces”

 – Esophagus consisted of air.

Upper part of Lt. lung was completely depressed, and LT. “scapula was broken in some places. Right scapula was broken too. The heart was pressed between sternum, and spinal column, and probably cause a sudden death fro mummy. The rest of heart which was full of air and dried material was located on the right. Both lungs were deviated to anterior and hilum of the lungs, and were dried.

Left part of chest because squeezed.
The cloth on the right side has more folds. Left knee was located on the abdomen, and lower end condyle of femur was broken.

May be pressure of the knee on the chest caused rupture of the heart. Pattela was located in the right place.

Three – dimensional reconstruction of chest for skin was not successful, because of foreign bodies.


4- Lower part of leg, sole of right foot. Conventional and three-
dimensional images “10 pieces”


At conventional images, there was a wide space between the posterior boot “heel” and the leather posterior end.

Skin, leather and cloth “a stock” layers reserved properly.

At the foot sole, there was a clear space between skin and the boot, and a tock is seen in single or multiple layers. 


– At three – dimensional images, we couldn’t see clearly, tarsal and meta tarsal bones, but sole bones were seen very clearly.

Three – dimensional reconstruction of the boot, showed foot sole, and shoe lace beautifully.

Shoe horn consisted from two layers, the outer part was thicker “thicker leather”.


5- Jar “1 piece”

The jar was hand – made, with no crake on it. Probability it was dried slowly. If it was dried in oven, we could see some small cracks.  Jar edge was fold , inside the jar.
Some dried material was seen, but, we cannot recognize what it had been. This material was cracked, so it was soft and semi- solid “it was not liquid”.


Total Conclusion:

1- Salt man is a man, because of the angle between
acetabulom arcs, this angle is 60
° in men, and 110°
in women.


2- The age of salt man is 15 – 16 with refers to epiphysis of first meta carpal bone and first finger of thumb.


3- Multiple fractures were seen in the whole body, confirming that the mummy’s body was stocked between two heavy, and powerful energy “heavy objects”.


4 – With attention to dryness of brain, and lung and being
lungs at anterior part of chest the mummy was laid for
many long years on his abdomen, and slightly head lower
than the body.

5 – Maybe falling a huge stone on the mummy, because of an
earthquake hadn’t let the man to escape.


6- It looks that his job had been bringing salt from the salt
mine, and it is said that some fatty things from animals is
needed in salt mine because hands becomes dry in salt
mine, but archeological research is needed to confirm this
“what was inside of the jar”.


7- Before coming Islam there was a custom for men to have earrings. Salt man No: 1 had gold earring, and salt man No: 4 had silver earring.

8- Salt man No: 1 had a lot of blond hair on his head, but Salt man No: 4 had short hair, and in some place no hair on his head. Maybe some mycosis had been the cause, therefore we have to research for spore.


9- Why this salt man has no beard, or mustache?
Because he had been very young.


Jalal Jalal Shokouhi – M.D., Radiologist.

Text is translated by Mahvash Mashayekhi M.D.  

Jam-e-Jam Medical Center – Tehran – Iran